Dear Fr. Gregory,
A very helpful set of reflections and comments, for which many thanks.
Yes, Rome's model, as one would expect from the only Western/Latin Patriarchate, is more Roman; the Romans did like clarity in these matters, even if it led to a multiplicity of laws. The Roman Catechism has a couple of thousand entries dealing with most of the things one could imagine, and a few which show real imagination to have thought of! So there, the distinction between dogma and discipline is clearer. My understanding (which I should be glad to have corrected if wrong) is that for Rome clerical celibacy is a disciplinary matter (after all the so-called Eastern Rite Churches have married priests), but that after John Paul's pronouncement on the matter, women priests is now a dogmatic one.
I didn't know about Cyril V's decision on the OT books. It rather looks as though the Coptic Patriarch has, in practice, a great deal more authority than the Pope of Rome. My Catholic friends have asked me whether our stance is the same as their own on abortion and birth control; my very imperfect understanding was that on the former it was, but not on the latter.
On the teachings of the Councils, we only recognise, as I understand it, three as being Ecumenical, so that does not over-burden us with Conciliar decisions, although I suppose in matters ecumenical our 375 Council of Ephesus condemning Chalcedon would need some careful diplomacy.
In the end, of course, all authority is His, but the means by which we are to be guide depend upon those to whom the powers to bind and loose were delegated.
In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins. (1 John 4:10)